Ngành công nghiệp ô tô không chỉ sử dụng nhiều nguyên liệu khi sản xuất mà còn tiêu tốn nhiều nhiên liệu trong quá trình chạy xe, và sinh ra nhiều khí thải. Các vật liệu được sử dụng để chế tạo ô tô có chứa các kim loại nặng như chì, thủy ngân, cadimi và crom, cũng như cao su, nhựa, … Các phi kim loại như thủy tinh và dầu mỡ sẽ gây ô nhiễm môi trường nghiêm trọng nếu không được chăm sóc hoặc xử lý không đúng cách sau khi bỏ đi.
In recent years, China’s automobile industry has made great progress in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection. However, the government still uses the old methods for the management of end-of-life automobiles, that is, dismantling and re-melting or simply refurbishing, which not only wastes a lot of manpower, but also Material resources are also very detrimental to the protection of the environment. According to the “China Automotive Social Development Report 2012-2013” released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, it is estimated that by the first quarter of 2013, the number of family cars in China will exceed 100 million, and the service life of a car is generally 15 years, so every year Many cars need to be scrapped and not recycled, which not only causes waste and harms the environment, but also requires a large area for storage of scrapped cars, which will bring a lot of troubles to our production and life.
For the automobile manufacturing industry to embark on a path of green, environmental protection and sustainable development, it is particularly important to vigorously promote the reuse of parts and components.
1. The huge driving role of the global circular economy
The so-called reuse of auto parts is to adopt advanced technology to restore the old parts to the original level or rebuild them to a better quality, and then reassemble them on the new car body. In terms of quality and performance, the remanufactured parts are not inferior or even better than the new products, but the manufacturing cost is reduced by about 50%, and the consumption of materials and 60% of energy is reduced by 70%, which can greatly reduce the impact on resources and the environment. pressure. Statistics show that, taking the energy consumed to manufacture an engine as a reference, the use of new parts is 10 times more than that of remanufacturing. It can be said that the reuse of auto parts is the gold industry of the 21st century.
At present, the reuse of auto parts in China is still in its infancy. There are only a few types of reused parts, and there are relatively few companies involved. In the 1920s, the developed countries of the automobile made the reuse of used automobiles a priority. The development of research projects has embarked on a mature development path. Due to many reasons such as technical level and cost control, the recycling rate of automobiles varies from country to country. For example, Fiat Automobile in Italy recycles approximately 1.3 million tons of scrapped automobile materials annually, with a recycling rate of 85%; Sweden’s Volvo Car Company is at the forefront in this regard, with a material recycling rate of 95%; the recycling rate of used cars in neighboring Japan has also reached 75%.
In Japan, hundreds of billions of yen worth of auto parts will be reused a year. The Cơ khí CNC parts can be sold normally through the circulation management system, and their quality can be traced back to ensure the interests of consumers.
2.Reuse is waiting to break the game
In the eyes of domestic consumers, scrap cars are broken copper and rotten iron, which can only be melted back to the furnace. Automobile manufacturers generally lack the awareness of recycling, and various related technologies are still lacking, making the scrap car recycling market in a state of disorder. .
As China enters the automobile society, relevant government administrative departments have begun to recognize various drawbacks and have begun to study and introduce a series of policies. In 2008, the “Administrative Measures for Pilot Auto Parts Remanufacturing” were first announced, specifying FAW, JAC, and Chery Fourteen companies, including Weichai, Weichai, Yuchai, and Sinotruk Jinan Fuqiang Power, are the pilot units. However, through understanding the situation of Jianghuai and Chery in recent years, it is found that the remanufacturing of parts has not been actively used in actual production. Jinan Fuqiang Power has been committed to engine remanufacturing over the years. However, its main business is to repair Sinotruk’s engines. When repairing engines, it replaces customers with remanufactured parts with lower prices and better quality. Each piece enjoys the same warranty service. This kind of applause is not popular. According to the analysis by industry insiders, there are deep-seated contradictions. According to the “Management Measures for the Recycling of Scrapped Automobiles”: recycling companies must disassemble and classify scrapped cars according to standards. The most important components such as transmissions, front and rear axles, and vehicle frames are handed over to metallurgical companies as waste materials, melted and reproduced into other raw materials.
The original intention of this policy was to prevent a large number of waste parts from flowing into the auto parts market, causing chaos and potential safety hazards. However, this deprived the remanufacturing pilot enterprises of the raw materials for production and made them in an extremely embarrassing situation.
3. The technical specifications of remanufacturing are in urgent need of R&D and promotion
No matter how good the quality of a car is, it will eventually be scrapped, but many parts of the scrapped car are still useful, but it needs some process technology to process and repair it. For a qualified automobile remanufacturing company, every step from the registration, inspection, dismantling and testing of parts and components of scrapped automobiles must be strictly performed in accordance with the specifications. For example, in the cleaning step of parts, first put the parts in professional equipment to remove the oil stains on the surface through high-temperature combustion; then put them in the shot blasting machine for shot peening to remove the oxide scale and carbon deposits on the surface of the parts, which is the next step. The process is ready.
In the process of remanufacturing parts, it is necessary to evaluate the application risk and determine the quality of the parts according to the service life of the parts. Therefore, it is very important to predict the remaining service life of the parts. At present, various universities and research institutes have successfully developed The basic principle of a series of devices for evaluating the remaining life of retired auto parts is to predict the remaining life of parts through metal magnetic memory detection technology.
After repairing, the quality of used parts will reach or even exceed that of new parts. For example, since many parts of the friction parts will be damaged due to long-term rotation, the surface is plated with a layer of precious alloy to restore the standard shape and size, and then they can be reused. These high-quality alloys contain elements such as silicon, manganese, and titanium, and their mechanical properties are much better than pure ferrous alloys, so the quality of the parts is not affected, but the price is only 20% to 30% of the original, which is really cheap.
There are many materials on the car body, which can be roughly divided into metal materials, inorganic materials, and organic materials. In addition to the above-mentioned repairable parts, metal materials such as body structure assemblies and tấm kim loại covering parts should be sent to the steel plant to continue to be used for manufacturing other vật liệu gia côngs. Products; Inorganic materials such as windshield and window glass can basically continue to be used; seats, unaged tires, etc. can be simply repaired and used; a large number of plastic parts are organic materials that cannot be reused as chemical raw materials; other non-recycling value The material must be treated in a harmless manner.
At present, domestic automobile recycling access management is not strict. Many small companies or individuals dismantle and assemble complete vehicles at will to make huge profits. Many unqualified parts and components have also flowed into the aftermarket. These vehicles without technical guarantees Going on the road will cause great safety hazards to transportation, so the market urgently needs a batch of technical regulations as industry norms and systems.
4.The key issues that need to be resolved in the promotion process
Although the reuse of auto parts started late in China, it is facing good development opportunities. The reuse of auto parts in China must embark on the road of industrialization and scale, and it is urgent to solve several important issues:
- 1 Through extensive publicity and guidance to change the inherent cognition of the majority of manufacturers and consumers,automotive machining products using reused parts cannot be equated with defective products or cutting corners, but a fashionable and advanced concept.
- 2 It is necessary to break through various obstacles to the reuse of auto parts from the system and policy level. The first is to raise the access standards, to kick those workshop companies that are unqualified, without equipment, and without technology out of the market, and to allow truly capable companies to participate; the second is to modify some clauses in the original management method that are not suitable for market laws and make them scrapped. Cars are really handed over to remanufacturing companies for processing, making the remanufacturing varieties more and more abundant.
- 3 Support and care should be given to the auto parts recycling industry. Government departments should give more preferential policies to reusing companies in terms of tax loans and other aspects, and make the development of auto parts reutilization a priority in industrial planning.
- 4 In the car scrap recycling process, it will also have a serious impact on the environment. If the parts recycling companies themselves do not pay attention to protection, the pollution is also very serious. In the actual production of the automobile recycling industry, it is necessary to strictly control pollution, establish a pretreatment platform and disposal specifications. During the dismantling process, leakage of lubricating oil, coolant, fuel oil and waste batteries will pollute the land and underground water sources. Special personnel should check and dispose of them in time; in the parts cleaning stage, to prevent waste gas pollution, environmental protection filter devices must be installed; in the parts repair process, it is necessary to prevent the electrolyte and heavy metals produced by electroplating from polluting the land and water sources.
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